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   Article of COW GHEE & Fatty Acids [Omega-3,5,6,7,9] :-


Introduction :

One of the most ancient systems of medicine - Ayurveda, developed thousands of years ago. But it continues to stun the scientific faculties all over the world by its highly evolved concepts.

Depending on the nature of the diseased and that of the disease, variety of drug dosage forms, modes of administrations, diet and lifestyle modifications are available in Ayurveda.


The fatty acid story :

Fats fall into two categories :- 

  1. Saturated
  2. Unsaturated

Saturated fatty acids are of two kinds :- 

  1. Short chain 
  2. Long chain

Short-chain fatty acids are easily assimilated, absorbed, and then metabolized so that they release energy. 

Long-chain fatty acids are not completely metabolized and are associated with cancer and blood clots (thrombosis). Most animal fat consists of long-chain fatty acids.


Unsaturated fatty acids can be either monounsaturated, polyunsaturated or trans fatty acids :-

Monounsaturated fats are considered to be very healthy and are associated with prevention of heart disease and cancer. Their chemical bonds are single and resistant to oxidation. Olive, mustard and rapeseed oils contain predominantly monounsaturated fatty acids. 

Polyunsaturated fats were once considered healthy but are now known to have negative factors. They have chemical double bonds, which are liable to become oxidized producing free radicals. Most vegetable oils contain predominantly polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sesame oil is an exception in that it contains powerful anti-oxidants. 

Trans fatty acids most commercially sold margarine and other hydrogenated fats are especially unhealthy as they typically contain 30% - 40% trans fatty acids, which have been shown to increase low-density lipoprotein as much as saturated fats do. 



FATTY ACIDS PRESENT IN GHEE :

[A] C8:0 Caprylic Acid : (1.20%) 

  • Eight-carbon saturated fatty acid. It is a medium chain fatty acid.
  • Caprylic acid has been found to possess numerous therapeutic properties, including an ability to help treat infections such as candidiasis, ringworm, gastroenteritis and salmonella. Well known benefits linked to Caprylic acid is its ability treat fungal infections e.g. Ringworm.

[B] C10:0 Capric Acid : (2.50%) 

  • Ten-carbon saturated fatty acid. It is a medium chain fatty acid.

[C] C12:0 Lauric Acid : (2.70%) 

  • Twelve-carbon saturated fatty acid. It is medium chain fatty acid.
  • Antimicrobial properties[3]. Able to raise metabolism, believed to be due to its activation of 20% of thyroidal hormones. Lauric Acid's release of enzymes in the intestinal tract which activate the thyroid.
  • Though it is a fat, it actually promotes weight loss because it is a healthy medium chain fatty acid.
  • The health benefits of Lauric Acid include hair care, skin care, stress relief, maintaining cholesterol levels, weight loss, increase immunity, proper digestion and metabolism, relief from kidney problems, heart diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, HIV & cancer, dental care and bone strength.

[D] C14:0 Myristic Acid : (11.80%) 

  • Fourteen-carbon, saturated fatty acid. It is a long chain fatty acid. 
  • Enhances immune system.

[E] C16:0 Palmitic Acid : (36.70%) 

  • 16-carbon saturated fatty acid. It is a long chain fatty acid.

[F] C16:1 Palmitoleic Acid : (3.30%) 

  • 16-carbon, Omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acid. It is a long chain fatty acid.
  • It can help in weight loss.
  • Acts as antioxidants. Antioxidants protect the body from aging caused by free radicals, which can cause damage that leads to heart disease. Also help relax blood pressure through the production of nitric oxide and balance certain hormones in the body.

[G] C18:0 Stearic Acid : (12.50%) 

  • 18-carbon, saturated fatty acid. It is a long chain fatty acid.
  • Acts as a powerful lubricant and having softening properties.

[H] C18:1 Oleic Acid : (26.20%) 

  • 18-carbon, mono-unsaturated Omega-9 fatty acid. It is a long chain fatty acid. Helps in boosting memory.
  • Hinders the progression of ALD a fatal disease that affects the brain and adrenal glands.


With this information the claims for the value of ghee can be better understood.

Most of the saturated fats in ghee are short-chained and only 11% are long-chained. Up to 27% of its total fatty acid is monounsaturated and only 4-5 % polyunsaturated fatty acids. We require both saturated and unsaturated fats in the right ratio and ghee comes closest to having this ideal ratio (60-66% saturated fats and 27% monounsaturated fats & 2-3% Polysaturated fatty acids. This shows that Cow Ghee is much superior to the commonly used cooking oils - groundnut & sunflower oil.


OMEGA [ Omega-3 & Omega-6 ] FATTY ACIDS IN GHEE :

Despite the potential health problems associated with poor quality PUFAs, they are also vital in providing the essential Omega fatty acids now famed for their health giving anti-oxidant properties. Ghee contains linoleic acid, an Omega-6 oil and alpha-Linoleic acid, an Omega-3 EFA. EFAs are only used for energy if present in excess, generally play the role of stimulating metabolism.[6] Correlations with ghee's effects of increasing agni are of great interest in this regard. Despite their benefits, there are dangers associated eating the wrong ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3. These include CVD, mental disorders (ADHD, depression, MS and Schizophrenia), and inflammatory diseases. Most of us eat more Omega-6 than Omega-3 but ghee provides both in an ideal ratio of 1:1.

 

FATTY ACIDS : OMEGA-3, OMEGA-6, OMEGA-9 — HOW THEY ADD UP ?

All fatty acids are composed of chains of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The differences between fatty acids lie in the molecular configuration, producing differing health effects between fats.

Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are known by another name: omegas. There are three types of omega fatty acids: omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are two types of polyunsaturated fat. They are considered essential fatty acids because the body cannot manufacture them. Omega-9 fatty acids are from a family of monounsaturated fats that also are beneficial when obtained in food.

All omega fatty acids play specific roles in overall health. These good fats can have health benefits, including:

  • Prevent coronary heart disease
  • Prevent stroke
  • Prevent diabetes
  • Promote healthy nerve activity
  • Improve vitamin absorption
  • Maintain a healthy immune system
  • Promote cell development

There are several differences in the specific profile and effect on the body of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fats and omega-9 monounsaturated fats.


WHAT ARE OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS ?

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat considered essential for human health because the body cannot manufacture it. People must obtain omega-3 fatty acids from foods such as fish, nuts and plant-based oils.


What are the types of omega-3 fatty acids ?

  • ALA, or alpha-linolenic acid, is an 18-carbon chain and three cis double bonds. The first double bond is located in the n-3 position or at the omega end of the fatty acid. Thus, ALA is considered a polyunsaturated n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid.
  • EPA or eicosapentaenoic acid contains a 20-carbon chain and five cis double bonds; the first double bond is located at the third carbon from the omega end. DHA or docosahexaenoic acid is a 22-carbon chain with six cis double bonds; the first double bond is located at the third carbon from the omega end of the fatty acid.

Omega-3 fatty acids are found naturally in :-

  • Grains
  • Spirulina
  • Brazil Nuts
  • Hempseed Oil
  • Mustard Seeds
  • Pumpkin Seeds
  • Chia Seed Oil
  • Wheat Germ Oil
  • Canola Oil (Rapeseed)
  • Green Leafy Vegetables
  • Raw Walnuts & Walnut Oil
  • Flaxseeds or Flaxseed Oil

Health Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acid :-

Research on the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acid have shown that it may be useful for supporting the following:

  • Asthma 
  • Diabetes 
  • Arthritis 
  • Osteoporosis 
  • Some Cancers 
  • Skin Disorders 
  • High Cholesterol 
  • High Blood Pressure 
  • Attention Disorders 
  • Depressive Disorders 
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Digestive Difficulties


What is Omega-6 Fatty Acid ?

Omega-6 fatty acid (Linoleic Acid) combined with omega-3 fatty acid produces many of the health benefits described above, but the trickiest part about playing the fatty acid game is that it is best to eat them in the right amounts.

You should be eating about twice as much omega-6 as omega-3, so that your omega-6 to omega-3 ratio is 2:1, but in today’s world of fast food, frozen entrees, and high calorie snacks, it is not uncommon for most people to actually be getting about 15 times more omega-6 than omega-3. Washington DC’s center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health suggest that eating omega-6 and omega-3 in the wrong proportions may actually negate the health benefits.

The best sources of omega-6 are seeds, nuts and grains and green leafy vegetables, like lettuce, broccoli, purslane and kale, and in certain raw vegetable oils. Care should be taken to use raw cold pressed vegetable oils because cooking destroys the benefits of the fatty acids.


What are the types of omega-6 fatty acids ?

  • LA or linoleic acid is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. It is an 18-carbon chain with the first double bond located at the sixth carbon from the omega end of the fatty acid. This position of the double bond is what classifies it as an omega-6.
  • GLA or gamma-linolenic acid also is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain. However, it differs slightly from LA, and is found in different food sources.
  • AA or arachidonic acid is a 20-carbon chain.

Omega-6 fatty acids are also found naturally in :-

  • Olive Oil
  • Wheatgerm
  • Grapeseeds
  • Pistachios
  • Sesame Oil
  • Hempseed Oil
  • Pumpkin Seeds
  • Chia Seed Oil
  • Safflower Oil
  • Sunflower Oil
  • Cottonseed Oil
  • Raw Nuts & Seeds

What are the health benefits of omega-6 fatty acids ?

Most omega-6 fatty acids are consumed in the diet from vegetable oils, such as linoleic acid. Excessive amounts of linoleic acid can contribute to inflammation and result in heart disease, cancer, asthma, arthritis and depression.


What is Omega-9 Fatty Acid ?

Omega-9, or monounsaturated oleic and stearic acid, is a non essential fatty acid produced naturally by the body whenever there is enough of either Omega 3 and 6 essential fatty acids.

However, if you do not have enough omega 3 and omega 6, then you must get omega 9 from your diet. This fatty acid plays a role in preventing heart disease by lowering cholesterol levels. Other benefits of omega 9 are that it reduces hardening of the arteries and improves immune function.


What are the types of omega-9 fatty acids ?

The primary omega-9 fatty acid is oleic acid. Oleic acid is commonly found in canola, olive and sunflower oils.


Omega-9 fatty acids are also found naturally in :-

  • Avocados
  • Pecans
  • Cashews
  • Almonds
  • Hazelnuts
  • Pistachios
  • Macadamia Nuts
  • Chia Seed Oil
  • Olives & Olive Oil

What are the health benefits of omega-9 fatty acids ?

Omega-9 fatty acids, commonly referred to as monounsaturated fatty acids, offer important health benefits. Research has shown that omega-9 fatty acids are protective against metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because omega-9 fatty acids have been shown to increase HDL (“good”) cholesterol and decrease LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, they help eliminate plaque buildup in the arteries, which may cause heart attack or stroke.


Another Fatty Acids : Omega 5 and 7 – Are They In You ?


There’s a lot of talk about certain omega fatty acids today – like omega 3, 6 and 9 fatty acids – and the need to consume them in our diet (or even to supplement the diet with them). Why ? Some omega fatty acids -linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) – are “essential” meaning that our bodies don’t make them so we rely on food sources to provide the building blocks for these fatty acids. Additionally, omega 3 fatty acids provide anti-inflammatory power helps balance our bodies in favor of appropriate inflammation. Omega 9, olive oil is a notable dietary source, receives great popularity with the health benefits of the Mediterranean Diet. But when talking about omega fatty acids and their health benefits, who says we should be count by threes (3,6,9) – in doing so we might just leap frog over some omega fatty acids with health benefits themselves (5,7).


Omega 7, known as palmitoleic acid, may appear to have ‘minor’ status in the world of monounsaturated fats but its health benefits are hardly such. Omega 7 helps regulate fat and blood sugar metabolism (in adipose tissue and in the pancreas). In vitro studies suggest that omega 7 helps improve the function of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. 

And when it comes to the skin, omega 7 is no ‘minor leaguer’…it is a major fatty acid in epithelial cell membranes – this means skin, blood vessels and mucous membranes. The presence of omega 7 in the epithelial cell membrane plays a protective role including inhibiting bacterial growth, as well promoting tissue recovery and healing. 

Research specifically on sea buck-thorn oil, (which contains 30-40% omega 7), shows its role in improving eczema, acne, oral and stomach ulcers, and vaginal irritation / dryness. Dietary sources of omega 7 fatty acids include wild salmon, macadamia nuts and sea buck-thorn berries.


Omega 5, otherwise known as myristoleic acid, is less common in nature – found primarily in the seed oil from plants in the Myristicaceae genus where nutmeg is the most well known; the oil is also extracted from saw palmetto. Myristoleic acid extracted from saw palmetto has shown to effectively combat cancer cells in prostate and pancreatic cancers. Additionally, omega 5 may play a key role in the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase, a mediator of inflammation, thus, by acting in this anti-inflammatory capacity it helps to promote appropriate inflammation in the body. Food sources of omega 5, beyond extracting myristoleic acid from the aforementioned plants, include the fat of marine animals (wild Alaskan salmon), beavers, and bovines.


So, omega 5 and 7, are they in you ? Seems like they should be. How ? 

Consider that whole food sources – plant and animal – contain an array of omega fatty acids thus they are your best insurance to get all of these nutrients. But what if you don’t eat fish, macadamia nuts or what if you are trying to treat one of the symptoms or diseases noted above and want to try omega fatty acid supplementation?  One key takeaway from this omega story is that rather than picking one or two favorites – Mother Nature doesn’t – think of your omega consumption like an orchestra – all the different omegas playing together make the sweetest music. 

Whether food or supplement, consider making the choice that provides an array of omega fatty acids. Afterall, a whole food approach to nutrition will help ensure you get omegas 5, 7 and 3, 6, 9 in you for optimal health.


GOOD FAT vs BAD FATS :-

It’s not about good versus evil. The simple explanation for why some fats are called ‘good’ is because they can have positive health benefits, and some fats are called ‘bad’ because they may negatively impact your health.


Bad fats:

  • are shown to raise ‘bad’ cholesterol (LDL)
  • may lower ‘good’ cholesterol (HDL)
  • can increase the risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke

Good fats:

  • are shown to improve cholesterol levels
  • may reduce risk factors of heart disease and stroke
  • may reduce risk of diabetes
  • could promote healthy nerve activity
  • are shown to improve vitamin absorption
  • are required to maintain healthy immune system
  • promote cell development


     

        
             

On any nutrition label, four different kinds of fat may be listed: trans, saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated. Each fatty acid has a unique nutrition profile based on its chemical structure. The differences in structure determine how the fat will be digested and absorbed in the body, ultimately influencing heart health.

 


Benefits of COW GHEE :-

1- Ghee as a Yogvahi-A Catalytic agent :-

    It carries the medicinal properties of herbs into the seven dhatus or tissues of the body.

2- Ghee aids absorption :- 

   Since ghee is an oil with short chain fatty acids, it is absorbed directly in blood via intestinal capillary. Ghee increases digestive fire and improves absorption & assimilation.

3- Ghee acts as bio enhancer :- 

    It increases the potency of herbs by carrying the active component to the interior of the cells where they impart the most benefits.

4- Ghee boosts mind and memory :- 

    Ghee increases Dhi (intelligence), refines the Buddhi (intellect) and improves Smruti (memory).

5- Ghee aids healthy skin :-

    Ghee builds aura, makes all the organs soft, increases rasa so skin becomes soft, smooth, lubricating & glowing. It also has anti ageing properties.

6- Ghee boosts immunity :- 

    It is a great immunity booster. It nourishes ojas, the subtle essence of all the body tissues. Ghee is very important in regards to free radical scavenging health & longevity.

7- Ghee acts as dosha balancer :- 

    Ghee balances both Vata (the dosha that controls movement in mind and body) and Pitta (the dosha that controls heat and metabolism).   Ghee with herbal formulations becomes great medium for balancing & revitalizing tonic for female reproductive system.

8- Ghee is a Lubricant :- 

    It is a powerful lubricant which lubricates the connective tissue & makes the body more flexible.

9- Ghee increases vitality & vigour :- 

    Herbal Ghee is considered as medicine for restoration physical strength, vitality and vigour.


THE REAL 21ST CENTURY VILLAINS : FREE RADICALS ?

Free radicals are "almost perfect candidates for the honour of casual villain in the biochemical drama of degenerative diseases". They are known to damage DNA, RNA, proteins, enzymes, membranes, eventually causing death. Beyond CVD, they are now thought to play a significant role in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory gut disorders, connective tissue disorders, strokes, acute renal necrosis, cancer, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, dementia, diabetes and the ageing process. Not only does ghee appear to help lower serum cholesterol levels, but it also contains anti-oxidants (Vitamins A and E) which prevent free radical damage. Within the body, Vitamins A and E are only bio-available when taken with fats. Ghee is thus an ideal delivery vehicle, especially for lacto-vegetarians. It serves to take anti-oxidants to cell membrane and cell structures made of fat , protecting against free radical damage.



REFERENCES :


[1] Lide, D.R. (Ed) (1990) CRC Handbook of Chemisty & Physics (70th Edn.), Boca Raton (FL):CRC Press.

[2] Nair MK, Koy J, Vasudevan P, Hinckley L, Hoagland TA, Venkitanarayan KS (Oct. 2005). "Anti bacterial effect of Caprylic acid nonocaprylin on major bacterial mastitis pathogens (J Dairy Sci 88(10):3488-95 (pub med).

[3] Hoffman KL, Han IY, Dawson PL(June 2001) "Antimicrobial effect of corn zein films impregnated with nisin, lauric acid & EDTA". J. Food Prot. 64(6) : 885-9, PMID 11403145.

[4] Oleicacid (http://membership.acs.org/c/ccs/pubs/ (LIPS/JCE 20020024.pdf) Chemical Laboratory Information Profile, American Chemical Society (retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/oleic-acid).

[5] www.scientificpsychic.com/fitness/fattyacids1.html

[6] Erasmus U. Fats that heal, Fats that kill, Canada : Alive Books, retrieved from 1993.230. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC(1780156)

[7] Bharat Bhaisajya Ratnavali

[8] ipedia.net

[9] A 21st Century look at Ghee - ayurvedic nevtar or heart disease risk factor? (Ayurvedicyogi.com)

[10] Dolecek, T.A. “Epidemiological evidence of relationships between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.” PSEBM. 200:177-182, 1992.

[11] Lands, William E.M. (December 2005). “Dietary fat and health: the evidence and the politics of prevention: careful use of dietary fats can improve life and prevent disease.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1055: 179-192. Blackwell. doi:10.1196/annals.1323.028. PMID 16387724.

[12] Hibbeln, Joseph R. (June 2006). “Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: estimations considering worldwide diversity.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (6, supplement): 1483S-1493S. American Society for Nutrition. PMID 16841858.

[13] Okuyama, Hirohmi; Ichikawa, Yuko; Sun, Yueji; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Lands, William E.M. (2007). “3 fatty acids effectively prevent coronary heart disease and other late-onset diseases: the excessive linoleic acid syndrome.” World Review of Nutritional Dietetics 96 (Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease): 83-103. Karger. doi:10.1159/000097809.

[14] Gillingham LG, Harris-Janz S, Jones PJ. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids are protective against metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lipids. 2011; 46(3):209-228.

[15] some Source of materials enhanched from omega-9oils.com websites.

[16] Omega-3,6,9 some facts n figures collecte from section of women health on "theswanker.com" website source.

[17] source of images in comparison of god vs. bad fats from website "goodfats101.com".

[18] source of Omega-5,7 facts from Ashley Koff RD website "ashleykoff.wordpress.com".


* [ Source of collections Particular Articles & Data with images : Section Articles from herbal hills ]

 

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